Who invented the sewing machine?
Why is not the sewing machine was invented so long?

Watches, weapons, mechanical looms, automatic and mechanical musical machines were in regular use in the early 1800s. Many of these devices are much more complex than the sewing machine.

Before there was a sewing machine, clothes creation was the main occupation of half the human race. Since this work was to be done by hand, it was time consuming and necessary task.

The 19th century was the main course for the majority of inventions and it is not surprising that during this period, many men paid attention to the development of devices, in order to make sewing stitches mechanically.

The first known mention of me really working a sewing machine:

The earliest sewing machine - a patented Saint Thomas (
Thomas Saint
) In 1790
William Newton Wilson directly manufacturer of sewing machines, patterns found in the London Patent Office, and built a machine that was running after a small amount of looper controls.
The handle rotates a single drive shaft located horizontally on top of the machine. The five mechanisms are at right angles, and are rotated together with the drive shaft. Closest to the handle mechanism interacts with the large wheel having teeth. This interaction moves the wheel around the axis periodically to move the desktop a little bit to the right after each stitch sewing machine. Clamps are installed on the surface of the desktop machines hold the processed material.

sntp4первая швейная машина

photos of Science Museum Kensington, London.


Before the needle is located awl, which at first makes a hole in the material. A necessary condition for the design to protect the thread because it was assumed that it passes through the skin.
So, in 1790, Thomas Saint invented a machine with the \ "hanging hand \", the feed mechanism (intended for short seams on the skin), with a vertical arrangement of the needle and lower looper.

However, there is no real evidence of the intended use of the sewing machine.

1829, French tailor Barthelemy Timon conceived chain stitch machine capable of sewing 200 stitches per minute (tailor sew about 30 stitches per minute), which he patented the following year, in 1830. It was a continuous thread (same car as Morey and Johnson, \ "re-invented \" in 1849).


Model car Barthélemy Thimonnier, located in the Museum of Science, the Kensington, London.
He used a needle, like a tailor's awl, which is formed on top of a simple chain stitch material.
The needle passes through the tissue and the tooth at right angles thread catching. To pass through the loop, needle tooth unfolded to the open end of the loop. After the thread tension to capture it, the needle is rotated 180 degrees so that a new loop has been drawn through the tissue. Next the needle is lowered through this new loop to again pick up the thread from the fabric and repeat the cycle.
Needle for sewing mechanically
In 1755, Charles Veyzentalem (Charles Weisenthal) received a patent
Britain's number 701 on the double-edged needle embroidery with eyelet at one end of the needle. He was known
Britain also patent №30078 of October 30, 1807 Edward and William Hapmanov (Chapman) on
making machine cloth belts or flat belts, which used needles
eye at the sharp end. Tailor of Vienna, the Austrian Madersperger (Madersperger) in his garment
machine, to which he received a patent, has used a needle with an eye at the sharp end in 1839.


The basis for the invention of this sewing machine was to be a combination of several inventions. working in sync to accomplish three tasks:

1. The thread need to push through the fabric. This is almost always done with this needle with eye, which should go up to a certain distance, to leave a loop beneath the fabric to be able to capture it looper or hook.

2. The fabric should be attached to the surface of the machine to allow the formation of this loop.

3. The material must be advanced between each stitch. Almost all the cars now use \ "four feed motion \" for this condition.

Consider some of the known mechanisms to ensure the capture of the thread bottom tissue after forming a needle loop with eyelet.
1.Bolshinstvo the first cars to use the lock stitch since his first successful application of approximately 1844 Elias Howe used this principle to the car, which patented in 1846.

This stitch has two filaments, one of which goes through the loop at the end of the needle and is situated on top, the sewing machine, and the other - by a coil in the shuttle. First shuttle passes through a small loop of thread formed in the end of the needle. This system is used for industrial machines, because the small size required for the shuttle reduces the amount of thread to possibly use.


The basic chain stitch
This is - the most simple stitch, but it is not often used because it is not reliable if one end becomes free, the whole line will easily raspuschena.Strochka is only one thread that runs through the needle eye. The hook catches thread twisting under the cloth and keep it, then the needle is raised, the fabric moves, and the needle is lowered again through the loop retained by the hook. Hook is back, kicking off the first loop, and moves forward again to remove the following loop, which prevents the first loop to go up through the fabric.


Rotating chain stitch hook
This is - a very clever device invented by James Gibbs in 1857. The peculiarity shaped hook is its rotation axis, where each stitch before the next pass through the loop, twisted. It's hard to figure it out, because the hook is working in three dimensions.
According to this principle operate modern machine buttonholes.


The oscillating shuttle
Rather than move the hook through the loop in the needle, why not pass the thread around the hook? The yarn passes much easier, so the whole system can be more compact and can therefore operate at high speed. The oscillating shuttle singer used since 1879 this system was made in 1928 and is still used successfully in most of sewing machines.


Четыре подачи движения

В ранних машинах, чтобы переместить ткань надо было остановить машину. В некоторых случаях материал был зажат или прикреплен к корпусу, чтобы иметь возможность шить большую длину без остановки.

В 1854 четыре подачи движения, патентованные Алланом Вайлсоном решили проблему очень аккуратно. Почти все изготовители приняли этот метод перемещения материала вперед после каждого стежка швейной машины.


AM Markov, the Vedas. Specialist Intellectual Property Department SIC \ "algorithm \"
Patent Attorney of the Russian Federation, Ph.D., St. Petersburg
The most famous legend in the medium Inventors: Singer received a patent for a needle for sewing machines
a hole in the pointed end, and so well made the claims that no one could with him
Initially, there was a desire to get the answer to one question: whether a patent? However, in the process
familiarity with patent documents relating to this subject, and with the creation of sewing history
machines, and other facts revealed that, from our point of view, may be of interest to modern

Isaac Merrit Singer
Isaac Merritt Singer (Isaac Merritt Singer) was an American, and for twelve years running away from home,
I tried a lot, there was even an actor, and most importantly - he was clearly vein inventor. However, it
the first machines: sawmill and machine carving did not lead to financial success.
His first Singer sewing machine created in 1850. Caught by chance in the workshop
Repair of sewing machines, sewing machine, he will improve and Leroy Blodgett (Sherburne C
Blodgett, John A. Lerow). Singer himself later said that the work took 11 days, and he
I used $ 40 of his partner. Earlier, in 1849, what Singer had no idea Blodgett
Leroy and its design received US Patent No. 6766.

The first patent
It is known that Singer did not know about patents and other sewing machines, which at that time
We are operating in the United States. The first application for the design created by him has been issued in the period from September
1850 by March 1851. As Singer he argued for patent registration, he turned to New
York to Charles M. Keller (Charles M. Keller) .1 It is interesting to note that the first filed by Singer
Patent application has not been issued, or it has been revoked or otklonena2. The second application is filed in
Patent Office April 16, 1851 and it was granted the first patent Singer number 8294 with the following
Formula 3
\ "What I claim as his invention and would like to secure the patent is as follows:
1. Giving additional shuttle forward, after he was stopped for
a loop circuit, as described above in order to tighten the stitch when the momentum given to this
if further movement in conjunction with the translational movement in the tissue
backward and upward motion of the needle end, as described above, so that the two
thread will be tightened in the same time, as described above.
2. Adjust the thread when the needle moving down by a combination of friction linings for the purpose of
prevent sagging of the fabric yarns with the purpose and in the manner which has been described
3. Placing the bobbin from which the thread is fed to the needle, on an adjustable console attached
to the frame in accordance with the previous description, though it is combined with the pulling
above the thread through the eye of a guide or attached to a carrier and moving the needle
with it, as described above. And you can set any desired length for thread
forming a loop without changing the range of motion of the needle. \ "
Thus, the first patent Singer is not a patent \ "on the needle for sewing machines
a hole in the pointed end \ ".
Singer in the description of his first patent itself indicates \ invented them "new and useful \"
improvements set out in five points and are in the abbreviated presentation can be reduced to
• coordination of movement of the shuttle and the needle for the formation of a reliable stitch;
• thread tension during the formation of the stitch;
• a mechanism for moving the fabric, consisting of a toothed wheel disposed under the fabric
and strips, pressing cloth on top that allows you to adjust the stitch length, sew indirect
• placement of coils of thread on the console, which is regulated by the position that allows
adjust the loop length.
Interestingly, the experts who study the history of sewing machines, almost unanimously
somewhat differently formulated to achieve Singer.
The design of the Singer machine needle is vertical, and horizontal shuttle. Thanks
This garment is on the table, you can perform continuous and straight lines and
avoid tangling the threads.
Fabric articles pressed foot, and movement of the fabric is made with a toothed wheel,
mounted under the table and is located beneath the fabric.
Put a foot drive, consisting of a rocking pedal and a rotating wheel, hands-free
While the patent office, along with
description of the invention was made
and represent a valid instance
invented the machine, which was called
\ "Patent model \". In fact, it was a direct
confirmation test \ "Industry
feasibility. \ "The model first
Singer sewing machine, sewing commercial
car number 22, has been preserved here
It provides a picture of her, made
Smithsonian institutom5.


1 This and other interesting facts are from the Smithsonian Institution and the history of technology
Technology in Washington: \ "The Sewing Machine: Its Invention and Development \" Cooper, Grace Rogers,
Published by Smithsonian Institution Washington DC, 1976.
2 See. Said source.
3 Translation formula made AP Dyachenko.

While searching on the website of the US Patent Office found 20 patents issued in the name of
Isaac Merritt Singer.

 US patent number Number Date
1, 8294 August 12, 1851
2 8876 April 13, 1852
3 10842 2 May 1854
4 10974 May 30, 1854
5 10975 30 May 1854
6 RE 278 October 3, 1854
7 12364 February 6, 1855
8 12969 May 29, 1855
9 13065 June 12, 1855
10 13362 31 iyulya1855
11 13661 9 oktyabrya1855
12 13662 9 oktyabrya1855
13 13687 October 10, 1855
14 13768 November 6, 1855
15 13966 December 18, 1855
16 14475 18 March 185
17 15020 June 3, 1856
18 16030 November 4, 1856
19 60433 December 11, 1866
20 61270 January 15, 1867

4 The first machines Singer foot drive was not, it appeared later.
Photo 5 of the said istochnika.Pervy patent for the design of the sewing machine Singer received August 12, 1851, the second patent was
obtained in 1852. Then comes a break until 1854. In 1854 - 1856's inventor
It received a record number of patents - 16. And then, after a ten-year break, two more
Among the patents obtained by Singer, and this can make anyone, no patent \ "on
needle sewing machine with a hole at the sharp end. \ "It appears that the inventors of sewing
machines and would not submit such a request, ... because these sewing needles were at that time
known. For example, in 1755 Charles Veyzentalem (Charles Weisenthal) received a patent
Britain's number 701 on the double-edged needle embroidery with eyelet at one end of the needle. He was known
Britain also patent №30078 of October 30, 1807 Edward and William Hapmanov (Chapman) on
making machine cloth belts or flat belts, which used needles
eye at the sharp end. Tailor of Vienna, the Austrian Madersperger (Madersperger) in his garment
machine, to which he received a patent, has used a needle with an eye at the sharp end in 1839.
Let's return to the stage in the history of sewing machines.
Designed machine, Singer directed all its energy on its commercial use. A car
It aroused considerable interest, and the first big order came in the same year. In 1851
owner of the company, along with Singer becomes lawyer Edward Clarke (Edward Clark), invested in
the firm's own funds.

Soon, however, successfully developing company Singer had to start trial
another inventor Elias Howe's sewing machine (Elias Howe), which in September 1846
4750 received a US patent for his design of the sewing machine. And although the construction of the garment
Singer machine different from the machine Hou, in it, according to Hou, the same principle applies
working needle and the shuttle.
You can compare drawings. The design on the left (No. 4750 Howe US) needle moves in an arc,
almost gorizontalno6, and on the right (patent US 8294 Singer) needle (b) moves



The design of the S. and J. Blodgett. Leroy (US Patent No. 6766), which was known when creating Singer
his car, the needle as well as in the construction of Hou moves horizontally.

In the United States Howe with his sewing machine she could not succeed and had to leave for Britain.
Returning to the US in 1849 after many misadventures, Hou begins, finally, to make their cars and considering that other manufacturers infringe its patent, initiates litigation in
including against Singer. These processes lasted until 1854, acquiring notoriety and
name \ "war sewing machine \".

In the course of the judicial fight against Elias Howe Singer also shows ingenuity. Break
old magazines, he found mention of the sewing machine Walter Hunt (Walter Hunt), which
It uses the same principle as the machine Hou, but created between 1832 and 1834 years. He finds
inventor and helps him get US patent 11161, published June 27, 1854. this patent
Hunt reflects the contribution to the creation of a sewing machine, but the court rejected his claim. Commissioner
Patent Office Charles Mason (Charles Mason), wrote:

\ "When the first inventor allows its opening to sleep for 18 years, with the full

inability to bring it to a state of active use, and when it is revived only

for repression and the suppression of the invention, which has already been transferred to the public and which already has

practical use, reasonable grounds must be in favor of the inventor,

who himself became a means of obtaining real benefits around the world \ "

Hunt Singer patent does not help in defending its interests. During \ "patent war \" Singer became
actively patenting improvements to its design. During this period he received 16 patents.

Agreements among competitors

In 1854, hand drawn into the \ "war \" to the negotiating table and agreed on the basis of their
Patents work together to create a \ "common patent \" to \ "combination sewing
car \ "In this agreement it was about. \" association \ "the following patents: US 4750 - Howe; US 8296
- Wilson; US 6439 - Bachelder; US 8294, 8876 - Singer; US 7931 - Grover & Baker, as well as patent Morey &
Johnson, details of which could not obnaruzhit8. The agreement provided for the allocation of
patent holders share of profit from the machine sales.
It should be noted that by this time the company Singer purchased the rights to some patents,
involved in the dispute, in particular, US Patent 6439 (Bachelder). These acquisitions have significantly strengthened
Singer's position in the agreement.
In the agreement the contribution of each of the participants was briefly reflected.
Contribution Singer was worded as follows: \ "cam in the shape of a heart for movement
rod with the needle inserted in it. \ "It is surprising that the contribution of other contemporary inventors
It seems more tangible to the reader. Of course, this wording should not be given large
values, it was the result of a compromise. Singer based on it have won a lot of business,
therefore the wording of the contribution must have been important to him.
Howe's contribution, which was recorded in the first position, formulated as follows: \ "grooved with a hole
needle used with the shuttle to form a lock-stitch \ ".
This wording was not Pat Howe (US 4750), anyone can easily verify this.
However, it is the wording of the agreement and could be the basis of the legend of the perfect
Pat, who still owns the minds of inventors.
After signing the agreement, Singer had no obstacles to gain market share.
Having signed an agreement Hou also won. With every car sold in the United States he was supposed to $ 5,
with each machine sold abroad - $ 1. In the period from 1856 to 1867, he received at least
two million dollarov9.
The last two US patent Singer 60433 December 11, 1866 and US 61270, January 15, 1867 at
Sewing machines, in fact, are a generalization of all the achievements of Singer. Formula
these patents are drafted clearly and concisely.

7 See. Said source.
8 Perhaps it was the US patent 10597.
9 indicate the source.

Here is a graph of patent activity in
In US sewing machines
considered years. It is seen that the date
Singer obtaining patents match
the rise of inventive activity
this area. After the 1857 expense
granted patents was already hundreds. Among
those patents and patents have years of the needle in
including sewing machines. As
examples refer to patent
US 11769 - Wilcox and Vitridzh (Wilcox &
Bhitridge), 1854; US 17272 - Harvey
(Garvey), 1857; US 29648 - Drake (Drake),
1860. However, they are not related to
Singer machine and other commercial
successful sewing machine.



Singer was the inventor who created a workable design that all the time
I improved. However, he has not received a patent for the sewing machine treadle, the introduction of
which in the design, as we remember, appreciate art historians. When attention Singer
pay attention to this fact, it was too late, treadle openly used for more than two
Singer sewing machine was created at a time when society was ready to accept and
use a sewing machine. The company Singer and Clark aggressive and very successfully used
various types of advertising and sales globally.

Legend of the perfect patent is not supported by the facts. There was Singer's patent on the needle
sewing machine with a hole in the pointed end, there was no such patent and other inventors of his
What is played in the history of patents Singer sewing machine?
On the one hand, it is not very large. We can not say that they were very successfully compiled.
Recall, for example, the first US patent 8294 - special generalizations in terms of patent our
time, it does not contain. And the loss of the possibility of obtaining a patent for the use of a foot
Drive also speaks volumes to the sewing machine.
On the other hand, if it was not in the Singer patent, it may not be able to produce their
machines so successful, and certainly not able to come to an agreement with Howe and other patent holders.
And most importantly - the success of its sewing machines played a huge role the successful combination of factors:
Inventive, industrial, commercial and patent. It is very important with a new and good
product at the right time in the right place.


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